The Millions Year War04:33

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Published on January 21, 2017

“Vitality — that is the test; and, whatever its components, mere truth is not necessarily one of them. A dragon, for instance, is a more enduring animal than a pterodactyl. I have never yet met anyone who really believed in a pterodactyl; but every honest person believes in dragons — down in the back-kitchen of his consciousness.”
-Kenneth Grahame

Outro Song: Just A Ride by Rishloo


The Reluctant Dragon by Kenneth Grahame on Amazon

The Fruit, The Tree, And The Serpent: Why We See So Well by Lynne A. Isbell on Amazon

An Instinct For Dragons by David E. Jones on Amazon

The Dragons Of Eden by Carl Sagan on Amazon

Kenneth Graham Biography by Peter Green on Amazon

Dragons: The Myths, Legends and Lore by Doug Niles on Amazon

Dragons And Unicorns: A Natural History by Paul A. Johnsgard on Amazon

Dragons: A Natural History by Karl P. N. Shuker on Amazon

Venomous: How Earth’s Deadliest Creatures Mastered Biochemistry by Christie Wilcox on Amazon


Conditioned Electrodermal Responses To Masked Fear-Relevant Stimuli

On The Automatic Nature Of Phobic Fear

Testing The Snake-Detection Hypothesis

The Hidden Snake In The Grass

Humans Recognize Partially Obscured Snakes More Easily Than Other Animals

The Origin of Snake And Spider Fear

The Narrow Fellow In The Grass


Afraid of Snakes? Your Pulvinar May Be To Blame by Carl Zimmer

Fear Of Snakes, Spiders Rooted In Evolution by John Roach

When You Were A Baby, You Were Not Scared Of Snakes by Melissa Hogenboom

Why We Are Afraid Of Snakes by Ann Lukits

Are Humans Predisposed To Fear Snakes by Nathan H. Lents

Scientists Have A Scary Theory About Why Human Vision Evolved by Meghan Bartels

East vs West Dragons

NPR Lynne Isbell Snake Detection Theory

Ancestor Of All Placental Mammals


Fire-Breathing Dragon Sound Effect by CGEffex

Tablet V Photo of Epic of Gilgamesh by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Spanish Dragon Relief by Alexandre Perez Vigo

Gilgamesh Statue Photos by ZulaikhaN and Samantha

Eastern Dragon Gates picture by Okkisafire

Blindsight Experiment 1989

Lemurs Madagascar by Quentin Djaq Le Franc

Lemurs Madagascar r by Andrew Quitmeyer

World Map by Nicholas Raymond Changes Made

Harlow’s Studies On Dependency In Monkeys

UCF In Print – David Jones

Die Nibelungen by Fritz Lang (1924)

Artwork By

Darrell K. Sweet
Edward Burne-Jones
Bernat Martorell
George Timothy Tobin
Arthur Rackham
Briton Rivière
Viktor Vasnetsov
Qasim ibn ’Ali
Ogata Gekko
Donn P Crane
Konstantin Vasilyev
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Chen Rong
William Blake
Harold Nelson
Leonardo Da Vinci
Emil Doepler
Solomon Joseph Solomon
Sir George Ripley
Maximilian Liebenwein
Georg Jenny
Ulisse Aldrovandi
John Bauer
Gustav Doré


Written, Produced, Edited and Hosted by Kevin Lieber

Contributing Researcher & Editor Matthew Tabor, Koala Fight Media

VFX by Eric Langlay

Sound Design by Jay Pellizzi

Select Music by Jake Chudnow

Special Thanks Hopi Hoekstra

Special Thanks Joshua Mark

Special Thanks Paula Lieber


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