Nuclear Weapons & War, Atomic Reactors & Radiation playlist:
Describes a variety of nuclear/atomic/radiation testing on animals. Shows some of the awful things some folks claimed they needed to do to poor unfortunate critters in the 1950s.
Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
In nuclear medicine procedures, radionuclides are combined with other elements to form chemical compounds, or else combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds, to form radiopharmaceuticals. These radiopharmaceuticals, once administered to the patient, can localize to specific organs or cellular receptors. This property of radiopharmaceuticals allows nuclear medicine the ability to image the extent of a disease process in the body, based on the cellular function and physiology, rather than relying on physical changes in the tissue anatomy. In some diseases, nuclear medicine studies can identify medical problems at an earlier stage than other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine, in a sense, is “radiology done inside out”, or “endo-radiology”, because it records radiation emitting from within the body rather than radiation that is generated by external sources like X-rays.
Treatment of diseased tissue, based on metabolism or uptake or binding of a particular ligand, may also be accomplished, similar to other areas of pharmacology. However, the treatment effects of radiopharmaceuticals rely on the tissue-destructive power of short-range ionizing radiation.
In the future, nuclear medicine may provide added impetus to the field known as molecular medicine. As understanding of biological processes in the cells of living organisms expands, specific probes can be developed to allow visualization, characterization, and quantification of biologic processes at the cellular and subcellular levels…
Diagnostic medical imaging
In nuclear medicine imaging, radiopharmaceuticals are taken internally, for example, intravenously or orally. Then, external detectors (gamma cameras) capture and form images from the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceuticals. This process is unlike a diagnostic X-ray, where external radiation is passed through the body to form an image.
There are several techniques of diagnostic nuclear medicine.
– 2D: Scintigraphy (“scint”) is the use of internal radionuclides to create two-dimensional images…
– 3D: SPECT is a 3D tomographic technique that uses gamma camera data from many projections and can be reconstructed in different planes. Positron emission tomography (PET) uses coincidence detection to image functional processes…
Nuclear medicine tests differ from most other imaging modalities in that diagnostic tests primarily show the physiological function of the system being investigated as opposed to traditional anatomical imaging such as CT or MRI. Nuclear medicine imaging studies are generally more organ- or tissue-specific (e.g.: lungs scan, heart scan, bone scan, brain scan, etc.) than those in conventional radiology imaging, which focus on a particular section of the body (e.g.: chest X-ray, abdomen/pelvis CT scan, head CT scan, etc.). In addition, there are nuclear medicine studies that allow imaging of the whole body based on certain cellular receptors or functions. Examples are whole body PET scans or PET/CT scans, gallium scans, indium white blood cell scans, MIBG and octreotide scans…
Although the risks of low-level radiation exposures are not well understood, a cautious approach…